ArcGIS API for Python provides GIS users with a Python API for their Web GIS (Online, Portal, or Enterprise in the cloud). It provides simple and efficient tools for GIS users sophisticated vector and raster analysis, geocoding, map making, routing and directions, as well as for organizing and managing a GIS with users, groups and information items.
In addition to working with your own data, the library enables access to ready to use maps and curated geographic data from Esri and other authoritative sources. It also integrates well with the scientific Python ecosystem and includes rich support for Pandas and Jupyter notebook.
Still trying to wrap your head around what this is all about? Watch this video from the 2017 ESRI User Conference.
And here is a write-up of first impressions:
Is ESRI starting to take the G out of GIS? Anyone can do this now, just push some buttons or program it? Are my days as a GIS professional numbered? Time will tell.